The Nature of Philosophy:

In Apology, Socrates refers to himself as a gadfly. Explain how this metaphor is considered to be
characteristic of the discipline of philosophy and its relationship with other academic and intellectual
pursuits. Explain Socrates’ argument for his assertion that “the unexamined life is not worth living.” Do
you agree with Socrates’ conclusion? Explain why or why not. (70 marks.)
Logic questions  –  You should try to limit yourself to two or three paragraphs per answer for each of
these questions.

1. Explain the difference between an invalid deductive argument and a strong inductive argument. Why is
it correct to consider one to be a “good” argument and the other one a “bad” argument?  (10 marks.)

2. The following argument is deductively invalid. Indicate the form, or structure, of  the argument, and
provide your  own counterexample (i.e., an example with all true premises and a false conclusion) that
clearly shows the invalidity. (10 marks.)
All cynical people are disgruntled. Some meticulous people are cynical. Therefore, some disgruntled
people are not meticulous.

3. Argument Construction  (10 marks)
The following statement represents the conclusion for an argument. The statement is expressed in the
form of two   alternatives. Select one of the alternatives and think of as many reasons as you can in
support of that alternative. With the alternative you have selected and the reasons you thought of,
construct an argument with the alternative you selected as the conclusion and your reasons as premises.
Make your argument as clear and convincing as possible for a person who doesn’t accept the alternative
you chose as a conclusion. (i.e. when grading this question that is the position I’ll be adopting.)
The possession, ownership, and sale of handguns should/should not   be outlawed.

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