# Logic and Deductive Reasoning

Logic and Deductive Reasoning
The multiple-choice questions require that you apply the central concepts that we have covered in novel material. Analyzing an argument in the news or in other classes is difficult because you have to decide what approach to take and what to focus on. The prompts provided in the questions will help guide your development of this analytical process.
The short answer questions require that you write a short evaluation of an argument or explain a central concept in your own words. To receive a good grade on these questions, your answer should be formulated as clearly and precisely as possible. Try to avoid misusing technical vocabulary, writing something vague or just re-writing the argument or question. Unless otherwise stated, you can receive full marks with a very short answer (2-3 sentences) provided that your answer is clear and on point.

Section I: Multiple Choice / 11
Section II: Argument Reconstruction /6
Section III /3
Total: /30

I: Multiple Choice
Each question is worth 1 mark. There are 12 questions. This section will be graded /11.

1. “It’s both true and false that “eating with one’s hands in sinful” ”. This person just violated which of the following:
(b) The Law of no paradox
(c) The Law of the excluded middle
(d) The Law of the moral universe

2. Despite the overwhelming evidence to the contrary, many teenagers believe that they cannot get pregnant if they have unprotected sex for the first time. They believe this primarily because the would prefer that it were true. In such cases, the teenagers make the mistake of:
(a) Hasty generalization
(b) Deriving an ought from an is
(c) Deriving an is from an ought
(d) Catch-22

3. The terms “prostitute” and “whore” have:
(a) The same meaning but different extensions
(b) The same meaning but different connotations
(c) The same meaning but different intensions

4. If “house” and “home” have the same extension then any statement that where these terms are mentioned, have the same truth conditions:
(a) True
(b) False

5. It is possible to stipulate the meaning of any term in an argument:
(a) True
(b) False

6. All valid arguments have true conclusions.
(a) True
(b) False
7. In Field of Dreams, a ghost tells Kevin C. the following: “If you build it, they will come.” Based on this information, Kevin can infer the following: [Circle any or all valid inferences]
(a) If he doesn’t build it, they won’t come.
(b) If they don’t come, he hasn’t built it.
(c) If they come, he has built it.
(d) If he built it, they may not come.

8. If paying be 100 dollars is a necessary and sufficient conditions for passing this class, you can infer that: [Circle any or all valid inferences]
(a) All of the students who pay \$100 will pass the class.
(b) All students who pass the class have paid me \$100.
(c) It is not possible to pass this class unless you pay me \$100.
(d) You will pass this class only if you pay me \$100.

9. “Piracy is against the law. Downloading movies off Piratebay counts as piracy. I have downloaded movies off of Piratebay. Therefore, I have done something wrong.” This argument contains four statements that are best described by the four following descriptions:
(a) Factual, Factual, Factual, Factual
(b) Evaluative, Conceptual, Factual, Evaluative
(c) Factual, Conceptual, Factual, Evaluative
(d) Evaluative, Factual, Conceptual, Evaluative

(a) Valid
(b) Invalid

11. “No man can ever be opposed to socialism who knows what it really is.” The author is:
(a) Making an astute factual observation
(b) Creating a Catch-22
(c) Committing the No-True-Scotsman fallacy
(d) Making an evaluative claim

12. “Facts do not cease to exist simply because they are ignored”. This statement is a:
(a) Factual claim
(b) Conceptual claim
(c) Verbal claim
(d) Evaluative claim
II: Reconstructing Arguments
Each question is worth 1.5 marks. This section will be graded /6.
(a) Put the following arguments in standard form by clearly identifying any explicit and/or implicit premises and the conclusion. (1 mark)
(b) Given your reconstruction, is the argument best understood as an inductive argument or a deductive argument? (.5 mark)

1. Equal property splits in divorces make men richer and women substantially poorer, a California study has found, buttressing nationwide efforts to include a husband’s earning potential in settlements.
The study of 3,000 divorces by a Stanford University researcher shows men improved their standard of living an average 42 percent in the first year after a divorce, while the living standard for women and children dropped 73 percent when income was compared to need.

2. At bottom I did not believe I had touched that man. The law of probabilities decreed me guiltless of his blood, for in all my small experience with guns I had never hit anything I had tried to hit. And I knew I had done my best to hit him.

3. Adam was led to sin by Even and not Eve by Adam. Therefore, it is just and right that woman accept as lord and master him who she led to sin.

4. If the public is very interested in a sport like baseball, they’ll pay plenty to see the games. The public does pay a lot to see baseball, so the public is very interested in baseball.

III: Logic and Deductive Inference
Each question is worth 1 mark. There are four questions. This section is graded /3.
(a) Formulate the following arguments in propositional logic to highlight the structure of the argument.
(b) Indicate whether the argument structure is valid or invalid.

1. I have a goat. Therefore, it is false that I don’t have a goat.
2. Either the Senate or the Congress will vote to restrict the surveillance powers of the NSA. The Senate will vote for restriction and so the Congress will not vote to restrict the NSA.
3. A necessary condition on getting into law school is a high LSAT. So, everyone gets a high LSAT score will get into law school.
4. If you don’t change the way you treat me, I’ll be nasty to you. But if you do change the way you treat me, then I’ll be nasty to you because I will think that is what worked. It’s the Catch-22 of a healthy relationship.

Each question is worth 1.5 marks. There are 7 questions. This section will be graded /10.

1. Explain why the following statement is a contradiction:
Everything written is untrue.

2. In your own words, explain why we are so interested in identifying contradictions in our theories of the world.

3. In the following statement, it is unclear whether or not the author is referring to the world “depression” or the concept depression. Explain the difference between these two readings of the following statement:
“Depression” just means whatever physiatrists say that it means.

4. How does the author’s vague use of the term “nature” undermine the strength of his argument:
In nature, during pregnancy, progestin is produced to block the release of additional eggs. The Pill is progestin in tablet form. Therefore, the Pill is a natural method of birth control.

5. Provide two analyses/definitions for the concept friendship. Provide one counter-example for each definition and explain to your reader why your example shows that the analysis is wrong.

6. In ethical debates, it is important to clearly distinguish between factual and evaluative claims. Provide two reasons why it is important to evaluate ethical arguments in light of this distinction.

7. Using the definition of validity, explain why both of these arguments are valid:
Argument 1: God exists, therefore God exists.
Argument 2: God does not exists, therefore God does not exist.

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